Managing Contaminated Animal and Plant Materials

Field Guide on Best Practices

Decision tree for contaminated animal disposal

IMAGE: Decision tree for contaminated animal disposal
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a No storage is necessary for carcasses = 200 t (400 cattle carcasses); otherwise, plan to store the extra carcasses. The throughput of a rendering plant is about 100 t/24 h.

b No storage is necessary for carcasses = 12 t (24 cattle carcasses) and if the throughput of the fixed facility incinerator is about 6 t/24 h; otherwise, plan to store the extra carcasses. Fixed facility incineration of carcasses eliminates the consumption of water for disposal process.

c No storage is necessary for carcasses = 200 t (400 cattle carcasses); otherwise, plan to store the extra carcasses. Throughput of an air-curtain burning system is about 100 t/24 h.

d No storage is necessary for prion-infected carcasses = 15 t and non-prion-infected carcasses = 30 t if the throughput of fixed alkaline hydrolysis is about 15 t/ 24 h and about 30 t/24 h, respectively; otherwise, plan to store the extra carcasses. Water consumption is a limiting factor in fixed alkaline hydrolysis and mobile alkaline hydrolysis (0.52 lb/1 lb of carcass). To dispose of the effluent of fixed alkaline hydrolysis in municipal waste treatment facilities (MWTF), it is necessary to acidify and dilute it and obtain permission from authorized personnel in the MWTF.

e No storage is necessary for prion-infected carcasses = 6 t and non-prion-infected carcasses = 12 t if the throughput of mobile alkaline hydrolysis is about 6 t/24 h and about 12 t/24 h, respectively; otherwise, store the extra carcasses. On-site use of mobile alkaline hydrolysis eliminates the biosecure transportation costs but requires skilled drivers/operators.

f No transportation is necessary. No storage is necessary for carcasses = 200 t (about 200,000 chickens); otherwise, plan to store the extra carcasses. The throughput of in-house windrow composting depends on the size of the poultry house and available equipment. For example, 10 skid-steers can make a windrow (12 ft wide and 6 ft tall) composting pile for about 400 t of carcasses within 2 days of operation. gNo storage is necessary for carcasses = 800 tons (1,600 cattle carcasses); otherwise, plan to store the extra carcasses. A trench digger with 1 yd3 bucket capacity will trench and bury about 800 tons of carcasses within 2 days.

h No storage is necessary for carcasses = 200 t (400 cattle carcasses); otherwise, plan to store the extra carcasses. The throughput of windrow composting depends on the size of carcasses, preprocessing (carcass grinding) and available equipment. For example, 10 skid-steers can make a windrow (12 ft wide and 6 ft tall) composting pile for about 400 t of carcasses within 2 days of operation.

i No storage is necessary for carcasses = 200 t (400 cattle carcasses); otherwise, plan to store the extra carcasses. The throughput of carcass landfilling depends on the size of the Type I (modern) landfill, transportation vehicles and processing machinery. Most landfills have a capacity of less than 100 t/day.

j Carcass mass burial capacity depends on the availability of equipment, personnel and the required pit dimensions.

k, l The capacities for carcass bin composting and digestion are limited; these methods are not appropriate for disposal of a large quantity of dead animals.

m Carcass open-air burning is the last choice for disposal of carcasses, and its capacity depends on the trench length.

n Landfilling costs:

  1. The charge can range from $10 to $50 per ton, not including costs for transporting the carcasses to the landfill. Source: Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality, 2004.
  2. The actual price of using a landfill in California was $42.55/ton for dead stock. Source: Personal communications with Matthew Hickman, Riverside County Waste Management Department, Moreno Valley, CA. August 21, 2006).

* Carcass disposal site specifications and regulations for thermal destruction, burial and composting methods:

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